A case series (also known as a clinical series) is a medical research study that tracks patients with a known exposure given similar treatment or examines their medical records for exposure and outcome. A case series can be retrospective or prospective and usually involves a smaller number of patients than the more powerful case-control studies or randomized controlled trials. Case series may be consecutive or non-consecutive, depending on whether all cases presenting to the reporting authors over a period of time were included, or only a selection.

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